What is Sinusitis?
Sinuses are the cavities in the bones of the face which connect to the nasal cavity.
Sinusitis is the swelling of the tissue lining the sinuses. Normally, sinuses are filled with air but in sinusitis they are blocked with fluid or mucus which gives a chance for the germs to grow and cause infection.
Types of Sinusitis
- There is sudden onset of the symptoms like running nose, nose block, loss of smell and facial pain. These symptoms last for about 4 weeks or less.
- The symptoms of sinusitis last for around 4-8 weeks.
- The symptoms of sinusitis like facial pain, nose block, facial congestion, thick yellowish or greenish nasal discharge last for around 8 weeks or more. These symptoms may be accompanied with fever.
- Repeated attacks of sinusitis within a year.
Symptoms of Sinusitis
- Acute sinusitis
There is a sudden onset of symptoms which last for 4 weeks or less.
Primary symptoms of acute sinusitis are:
- Facial pain
- Nasal stuffiness
- Nasal discharge
- Loss of smell
Other additional symptoms that may be present are fever, fatigue, dental pain and offensive breathing.
Symptoms last for 8 weeks or more.
- Facial congestion/fullness, with pain, tenderness and swelling around the eyes, cheeks, nose or forehead
- A nasal obstruction
- Pus in the nasal cavity
- Nasal discharge/postnasal drainage (thick, yellowish or greenish)
- Reduces sense of smell or taste
Additional symptoms of chronic sinusitis may include:
- Bad breath (halitosis)
- Fatigue or irritability
- Dental pain
- Ear pain
- A sore throat with a cough which is worse at night
Causes of Sinusitis
- Nasal polyps: Small growths in the nasal mucosa which block the air passages or sinuses.
- Allergic reactions: fungal infections of sinuses.
- Deviated nasal septum
- Trauma to the face: fractured facial bone can cause obstruction of the sinus passages.
- Other medical conditions: Diseases that cause lowered immunity in the patients and also diseases like gastroesophageal reflux disease.
- Respiratory tract infections: Common cold and allergic rhinitis and also some bacterial, viral and fungal infections à thickening and swelling of sinus mucosa à blocks mucus drainage à infection of the sinuses.
Diagnosis of sinusitis
- Thorough physical examination of the nasal passage to check for DNS or nasal polyps.
- Nasal endoscopy (rhinoscopy): A thin, flexible tube (endoscope) with a light is inserted through the nose à it helps to inspect the sinuses from inside.
- CT scan and MRI scanning: To identify a deep seated inflammation or physical obstruction that is difficult to be seen on an endoscope.
- Nasal or sinus cultures: done in cases which do not respond to treatment for a long time. It helps to identify the bacteria or fungus that is causing the disease.
- Allergy test: An allergy skin test is carried to identify the allergen that is causing the problems.
- Application of warm packs on the face to relieve the pain in the sinuses.
- Regular cleaning of the nose to help unblock the nose and reduce nasal discharge.
- Drink plenty of fluids. It helps to dilute the mucus and promotes its drainage.
- Hot steam inhalation to help relieve the pain in the sinuses and to help dilute the mucus.
- Sleeping with an elevated head for easy drainage of mucus and to release the nasal congestion.
- Thick Bland nasal discharge, green in colour
- > open air
- Thirst less
- < fatty food
- Offensive discharge
- yellowish-green nasal discharge with Burning
- offensive and thick acrid discharge
- a headache with heat in the head along with nasal discharge
- Profuse Salivation
- right sided a headache
- chilly and is very sensitive to cold air
- > warm covering
- nasal stuffiness present
- nasal discharges get clogged in hard crusts
- Sinusitis where the discharge drops back into the throat despite coming out of the nose
- Thick yellow Ropy discharges
- pain and heaviness in the nose.
- A sinus headache is due to suppressed discharge
- violent headache
- a headache > by binding the head tightly or applying pressure.
- throat pain and cough when the sinus infection travels down the throat.
- Running Nose, Sneezing on exposure to dry cold winds
- Thick offensive Coryza smell like old cheese
- Stuffed up feeling in nose on exposure to dry cold weather
- Sensation of splinter in the throat, Hoarseness with loss of voice
- A cough< uncovering, exposure to cold air
- Rattling cough has to rise up and is better bending head backwards