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What is Pemphigus Vulgaris?

It is an autoimmune disease characterized by painful blisters and erosions on the skin and mucous membranes, especially of mouth and genitals.

It can occur at any age group but mostly seen in middle aged and older.


Symptoms Pemphigus Vulgaris

At first, the blisters appear in the mucosal areas of mouth and genitals. Other mucosal areas that can be affected are conjunctiva, esophagus, labia, vagina, cervix, penis, urethra and anus.

Common symptoms of Oral Mucosal Pemphigus are:

  • external blistering with erosions
  • Widespread involvement in the mouth with painful swallowing
  • Slow to heal
  • May spread to larynx causing hoarseness of voice


Skin lesions appear as blisters filled with clear fluid. These blisters break open easily causing painful erosions which may again develop to form patches which are crusty.


Causes of Pemphigus Vulgaris

Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune disease wherein one’s own immune system starts reacting against his/her own tissues.

The skin is made up of cells called as keratinocytes which are joined together by substances called as desmosomes.

In pemphigus vulgaris, antibodies against one’s own cells bind to a protein called desmoglein 3 which is found in desmosomes in the keratinocytes.

As a result, the keratinocytes separate from each other and are replaced by fluid, the blisters.


Risk factors of Pemphigus Vulgaris

Rarely pemphigus vulgaris can develop as a side effect of certain anti-hypertensive medications. It disappears with the stoppage of the medicine.


Diagnosis  of Pemphigus Vulgaris

  • Skin biopsy

On doing a skin biopsy, it is seen that the cells in the skin called as keratinocytes have separated from each other.

Pemphigus is diagnosed by Direct Immunofluorescence Staining of skin biopsy sections to reveal autoantibodies.

In most cases, circulating antibodies can be revealed by Indirect Immunofluorescence test. Levels of the antibodies suggest the effectiveness of treatment.

  • Endoscopy examination

To check for the sores in the throat.


Self help

  • Avoid spicy, acidic, crispy foods if there are blisters in the mouth.
  • Regular brushing of teeth with good oral hygiene by using a soft toothbrush.
  • Keep the affected areas of skin clean to prevent infection.


Homoeopathic Management of Pemphigus

Homoeopathic Medicine will help to decrease blister formation, prevent infections and promote healing of blisters and erosions. Also, helps to improve the immunity of the patient.


  • Great burning of skin
  • Scarlet redness over the whole body, which is covered with blisters from the size of a pin’s head up to pea
  • Itching (<) evening in bed.
  • Sudden loss of memory
  • The desire to constantly curse and swear.


  • Blisters and vesicles on the body that are filled with water.
  • Fluid vesicles on the palms of hands and on the tibia.
  • Intense pain in these blisters, causing the patient to scream in pain.


  • Erysipelatous inflammation of your skin with blister formation
  • Itching in the blisters with pain that is worse on touch
  • over sensitiveness associated with excessive weakness. Apart
  • Skin symptoms associated with urinary complaints.
  • constant urging to urinate, passing a few bloody drops of blood at a time
  • constant burning and cutting pains in urethra during urination. The urging to urinate is constantly present before, during, and after urination.

Ranunculus Bulbosus

  • Blisters are constantly and repeatedly erupting.
  • Offensive, gluey matter from the blisters that form crusts.
  • The blisters heal from the center; the discharge is acrid and makes the surrounding parts store


  • Pemphigus from suddenly checked perspiration, i.e. you get chilled when you are overheated or perspiring.
  • Tearing and stitching pain worse by slightest motion, even inspiration and coughing and are better by complete rest.
  • Excessive dryness of the mucous membranes of your body; your lips and tongue are dry causing you to feel very thirsty
  • A stool is very hard and dry, even urine is dark and scanty.