POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN DISEASE
Definition of PCOD
PCOD is a hormonal imbalance in the women of reproductive age group. In this condition, it is seen that the ovaries of a woman contain small fluid filled sacs called as follicles, which is seen on ultrasonography.
PCOD can cause many changes in a woman’s menstrual and pregnancy periods and the way she looks.
Early diagnosis and treatment help in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart diseases.
Symptoms of PCOD
- Weight gain
- Extra thick hair growth on face and whole body
- Thinning of scalp hair with hair fall (male pattern baldness)
- Irregular menstrual periods; some women do not get periods for months together while others get very heavy bleeding.
- Women who have PCOD have problems in getting pregnant (infertility)
- Depression and anxiety
Causes of PCOD
- Insulin resistance: insulin is a hormone which helps the body to use the sugar (glucose) in the blood for getting energy. If the body is resistant to insulin, that is the body cannot use insulin properly then there is an excess of insulin in the body. This excess insulin causes the ovaries to produce extra amounts of androgens (male hormone) and disturbs it a function of ovulation that is the production of ova (eggs).
The insulin resistance of the body can further give rise to diabetes over a period of time if not treated.
- Family history: if there is a family history of PCOD either from mother’s or father’s side, then the child is likely to get PCOD during adolescence.
Diagnosis of PCOD
Diagnosis of PCOD can be made by asking the history to the patient about:
- Her medical history
- Family history
- Menstrual periods
- Changes in the weight
- About hair fall if any
- History about pregnancy and abortions if any
- Physical examination of the patient includes checking the height, weight and blood pressure of the patient.
- Pelvic examination to check for any masses or growths in the pelvic region.
- Blood tests like thyroid profile, FBSL, PPBSL, insulin, serum cholesterol etc. to rule other possible illnesses or hormonal imbalances that may be causing the symptoms.
- Ultrasound to check for the structure of the ovaries and fluid filled masses and the thickness of the lining of the uterus.
- Reducing the weight helps in reducing the insulin resistance and androgen (male hormone) levels in the body.
- Dietary changes like eating high fiber carbohydrates which help in slow digestion and slow increase in glucose levels in the body. This helps in keeping a check on diabetes due to insulin resistance.
- Daily activities and exercises help to reduce weight and in reducing the insulin resistance of the body.
- Scanty suppressed and late menses with bearing down sensation
- Abnormal hair growth on the face, esp upper lip
- Oversensitivity to cold air, Irritability at mind level, Indifference nature
- Lax muscle fibers sit cross legs to prevent prolapsed
- Suppressed, Irregular or late menses since puberty
- Desires open air
- < fatty food
- Weeping tendency > consolation
- Prolonged and Profuse menstrual flow
- Tendency to gain weight easily
- Excessive sweating of head
- Oversensitive to cold air
- Craving for boiled eggs
- Suppressed scanty menses
- Desires salty food
- Hot Patient
- Reserved, weeps alone < consolation
- Retarded menstrual flow with multiple cyst in ovary
- Cysic growth esp on left ovary
- Excess hair growth due to hormonal imbalance
- Given for abnormal growths